||FRIENDS OF THE
BANDERA EMBROIDERY ASSOCIATION
Statutes" define cotton as the main preferred fibre employed in weaving Bandera cloth
at least from the year 1,482. Similar references appear in documents written at later
dates which constitute most of the significant unpublished descriptions found in the
"Source and Historical Outlines on the Bandera in Chieri" (Fonti e Cenni Storici
sul Bandera a Chieri). Equally important is a brief selection obtained in researching the
bibliographies by Paolo Crivallero, and from the "Statutes of the Art of Fustian of
Chieri" (Statuti dell' Arte del Fustagno di Chieri) by A.M.Nada Patrone and V.
Balbiano d'Aramengo, Torino 1966.
In the year 1,482: Article III of the Statutes establishes the normes and specifications
for the manufacturing of the Banderas.
It states that it had to be woven in 19
sections (portate) made with 42 threds; every piece of "Bandera",
"Bombaxina" or "Espeseto" could not be shorter than 45 rasi,
"equivalent to approx. 32 mt." (approx. 106 ft.) It was also established that
the "espeseti" should be woven in 18.5 sections "portate" with each
section having 45 threads.
P.S.: The "Bombaxinas" are not
considered bandera cloth; the "Espesetos" are banderas with one stripe and
named in this manner in order to differentiate them from the more accepted two
or three striped banderas. The antique "espesetos" cited in the satatutes are
approximatly the equivalent of "spessetti" or "righettos" mentioned in
the 16th--17th century sources as a type of single striped bandera. On June 7, 1,588
arrangements were made for the supply and distribution of Bandera jackets
"Giponi" and bandera stockings/socks to the young people/children
"puti". It is generally believed the material used was striped bandera from
Chieri. This assumption is reinforced by the fact that the reigning House of Savoy had
granted the outright monopoly of cotton manufacturing to Chieri. Later, towards the end of
the 16th century, these cotton fabrics were embellished with embroidery and called
"Bandera Embroidery". This denomination indicates raised parallel
"bands" or "stripes" that characterise one type of this cloth.
The "Bandera Embroidery" appeared
in Piedmont during a period of significant French influence, however it seems to have
originated in Anatolia. The "Bandera Embroidery" consists of reproductions of
elaborate polychrome decorative motifs, mostly with the "rocaille" or
"rococo" styles. The center is a concentration of a floral nature, or of various
anthropomorphic figures and a thick ribbon like border in soften hues.